Synthesis of Benzoic acid

Set up a reflux apparatus, pour 20 mL of toluene into the conical flask, add 16 g of potassium permanganate and 180 mL of water. Reflux for 6h at 100°C. Filter and discard the black manganese dioxide sludge, remove excess toluene in a separatory funnel, cool the solution down to 5°C and start adding hydrochloric acid until no white crystals appear. Filter and wash the crystals with cold water, dry and recrystallize in hot water.

Refluxing the mixture

The mixture after reflux

Filtration of the mixture

The filtrate

Removal of the upper layer

Acidification of the aqueous layer

Filtration and washing

The crystallized product

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