Synthesis of Aniline

To a 500 mL RBF add 21 mL of nitrobenzene and 45 g of granulated tin, stir. Add 100 mL of conc. HCl in 15 mL portions, always add the portion when the reaction seems to slow down, if the reaction becomes too violent cool it with an ice water, stir vigorously. When all of the HCl is added reflux the solution in boiling water for 60 minutes. Dissolve 75 g of sodium hydroxide and 125 mL of ice-cold water, cool down the refluxing solution, add the sodium hydroxide slowly with stirring and don’t allow to boil. Then distill the aniline off with stirring,¬†collect about 120 mL of distillate. And 40 mL of sodium chloride to salt out the aniline with stirring. Then transfer to a separatory funnel and collect the aniline with 3x 30 mL of DCM, distill the DCM and dry the aniline with anhydrous sodium hydroxide.



Addition of the HCl, refluxing for 60 minutes


Addition of the sodium hydroxide solution


Distillation with stirring

Extraction of the crude product with DCM

Drying the extract

The dried extract


Removal of the solvent and impurities from the product

The pure product

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